Constitution of Japan  日本国憲法

Preamble
We, the Japanese people, acting through our duly elected representatives in the National Diet, determined that we shall secure for ourselves and our posterity the fruits of peaceful cooperation with all nations and the blessings of liberty throughout this land, and resolved that never again shall we be visited with the horrors of war through the action of government, do proclaim that sovereign power resides with the people and do firmly establish this Constitution. Government is a sacred trust of the people, the authority for which is derived from the people, the powers of which are exercised by the representatives of the people, and the benefits of which are enjoyed by the people. This is a universal principle of mankind upon which this Constitution is founded. We reject and revoke all constitutions, laws, ordinances, and rescripts in conflict herewith.
We, the Japanese people, desire peace for all time and are deeply conscious of the high ideals controlling human relationship, and we have determined to preserve our security and existence, trusting in the justice and faith of the peace-loving peoples of the world. We desire to occupy an honored place in an international society striving for the preservation of peace, and the banishment of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance for all time from the earth. We recognize that all peoples of the world have the right to live in peace, free from fear and want.
We believe that no nation is responsible to itself alone, but that laws of political morality are universal, and that obedience to such laws is incumbent upon all nations who would sustain their own sovereignty and justify their sovereign relationship with other nations.
We, the Japanese people, pledge our national honor to accomplish these high ideals and purposes with all our resources.

CHAPTER I: THE EMPEROR
Article 1:
The Emperor shall be the symbol of the State and the unity of the people, deriving his position from the will of
the people with whom resides sovereign power.

Article 2:
The Imperial Throne shall be dynastic and succeeded to in accordance with the Imperial House Law passedby
the Diet.

Article 3:
The advice and approval of the Emperor in matters of state, and the Cabinet shall be responsible therefor.

Article 4:
The Emperor shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in this Constitution and he
shall not have powers related to government.
2) The Emperor may delegate the performance of his acts in matters of state as may be provided for by law.

Article 5:
When, in accordance with the Imperial House Law, a Regency is established, the Regent shall perform his
acts in matters of state in the Emperor's name.
In this case, paragraph one of the preceding Article will be applicable.

Article 6:
The Emperor shall appoint the Prime Minister as designated by the Emperor shall appoint the Chief Judge of
the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet.

Article 7:
The Emperor shall, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, perform the following acts in matters of state
on behalf of the people:
(1) Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, laws, cabinet orders and treaties.
(2) Convocation of the Diet.
(3) Dissolution of the House of Representatives.
(4) Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet.
(5) Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by
   law, and of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers.
(6) Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.
(7) Awarding of honors.
(8) Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law.
(9) Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers.
(10) Performance of ceremonial functions.

Article 8:
No property can be given to, or received by, the Imperial House, nor can any gifts be made therefrom, without
the authorization of the Diet.


CHAPTER II: RENUNCIATION OF WAR
Article 9:
Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce
war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes.
(2) In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other
   war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.

CHAPTER III: RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE PEOPLE
Article 10:
The conditions necessary for being a Japanese national shall be determined by law.

Article 11:
The people shall not be prevented from enjoying any of the fundamental human rights.
These fundamental human rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be
conferred upon the people of this and future generations as eternal and inviolate rights.

Article 12:
The freedoms and rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be maintained
by the constant endeavor of the people, who shall refrain from any abuse of these
freedoms and rights and shall always be responsible for utilizing them for the public welfare.

Article 13:
All of the people shall be respected as individuals. Their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit
of happiness shall, to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare,be the
supreme consideration in legislation and in other governmental affairs.

Article 14:
All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political,
economic or socialrelations because of race, creed, sex, social status or family origin.
2) Peers and peerage shall not be recognized.
3) No privilege shall accompany any award of honor, decoration or any distinction, nor
  shall any such award be valid beyond the lifetime of the individual who now holds or
  hereafter may receive it.

Article 15:
The people have the inalienable right to choose their public officials and to dismiss them.
2) All public officials are servants of the whole community and not of any group thereof.
3) Universal adult suffrage is guaranteed with regard to the election of public officials.
4) In all elections, secrecy of the ballot shall not be violated. A voter shall not be
  answerable, publicly or privately, for the choice he has made.

Article 16:
Every person shall have the right of peaceful petition for the redress of damage, for the
removal of public officials, for the enactment, repeal or amendment of laws, ordinances
or regulations and for other matters; nor shall any person be in any way discriminated
against for sponsoring such a petition.

Article 17:
Every person may sue for redress as provided by law from the State or a public entity,
in case he has suffered damage through illegal act of any public official.

Article 18:
No person shall be held in bondage of any kind. Involuntary servitude, except as
punishment for crime, is prohibited.
Article 19:
Freedom of thought and conscience shall not be violated.
Article 20:
Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all.
No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State, nor exercise
any political authority.
2) No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious acts, celebration, rite
  or practice.
3) The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other
  religious activity.

Article 21:
Freedom of assembly and association as well as speech, press and all other forms of
expression are guaranteed.
2) No censorship shall be maintained, nor shall the secrecy of any means of
  communication be violated.

Article 22:
Every person shall have freedom to choose and change his residence and to choose
his occupation to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare.
2) Freedom of all persons to move to a foreign country and to divest themselves of
  their nationality shall be inviolate.

Article 23:
Academic freedom is guaranteed.

Article 24:
Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be
maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as
a basis.
2) With regard to choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domicile,
  divorce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the family, laws shall be enacted
  from the standpoint of individual dignity and the essential equality of the sexes.

Article 25:
All people shall have the right to maintain the minimum standards of wholesome and
cultured living.
2) In all spheres of life, the State shall use its endeavors for the promotion and extension
  of social welfare and security, and of public health.

Article 26:
All people shall have the right to receive an equal education correspondent to their ability,
as provided for by law.
2) All people shall be obligated to have all boys and girls under their protection receive
  ordinary education as provided for by law. Such compulsory education shall be free.

Article 27:
All people shall have the right and the obligation to work.
2) Standards for wages, hours, rest and other working conditions shall be fixed by law.
3) Children shall not be exploited.

Article 28:
The right of workers to organize and to bargain and act collectively is guaranteed.

Article 29:
The right to own or to hold property is inviolable.
2) Property rights shall be defined by law, in conformity with the public welfare.
3) Private property may be taken for public use upon just compensation therefor.

Article 30:
The people shall be liable to taxation as provided for by law.

Article 31:
No person shall be deprived of life or liberty, nor shall any other criminal penalty be
imposed, except according to procedure established by law.

Article 32:
No person shall be denied the right of access to the courts.

Article 33:
No person shall be apprehended except upon warrant issued by a competent judicial
officer which specifies the offense with which the person is charged, unless he is
apprehended, the offense being committed.

Article 34:
No person shall be arrested or detained without being at once infomed of the charges
against him or without the immediate privilege of counsel; nor shall he be detained without
adequate cause; and upon demand of any person such cause must be immediately shown
in open court in his presence and the presence of his counsel.

Article 35:
The right of all persons to be secure in their homes, papers and effects against entries,
searches and seizures shall not be impaired except upon warrant issued for adequate
cause and particularly describing the place to be searched and things to be seized, or
except as provided by Article 33.
2) Each search or seizure shall be made upon separate warrant issued by a competent
  judicial officer.

Article 36:
The infliction of torture by any public officer and cruel punishments are absolutely
forbidden.

Article 37:
In all criminal cases the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by
an impartial tribunal.
2) He shall be permitted full opportunity to examine all witnesses, and he shall have
  the right of compulsory process for obtaining witnesses on his behalf at public expense.
3) At all times the accused shall have the assistance of competent counsel who shall,
  if the accused is unable to secure the same by his own efforts, be assigned to his
  use by the State.

Article 38:
No person shall be compelled to testify against himself.
2) Confession made under compulsion, torture or threat, or after prolonged arrest or
  detention shall not be admitted in evidence.
3) No person shall be convicted or punished in cases where the only proof against
  him is his ownconfession.

Article 39:
No person shall be held criminally liable for an act which was lawful at the time it was
committed, or of which he had been acquitted, nor shall he be placed in double jeopardy.

Article 40:
Any person may, in case he is acquitted after he has been arrested or detained, sue
the State for redress as provided for by law.

CHAPTER IV: THE DIET
Article 41:
The Diet shall be the highest organ of the state power, and shall be the sole lawmaking
organ of the State.

Article 42:
The Diet shall consist of two Houses, namely the House of Representatives and the
House of Councillors.

Article 43:
Both Houses shall consist of elected members, representative of all the people.
2) The number of the members of each House shall be fixed by law.

Article 44:
The qualifications of members of both Houses and their electors shall be fixed by law.
However, there shall be no discrimination because of race, creed, sex, social status,
family origin, education, property or income.

Article 45:
The term of office of members of the House of Representatives shall be four years.
However, the term shall be terminated before the full term is up in case the House of
Representatives is dissolved.

Article 46:
The term of office of members of the House of Councillors shall be six years, and
election for half the members shall take place every three years.

Article 47:
Electoral districts, method of voting and other matters pertaining to the method of
election of members of both Houses shall be fixed by law.

Article 48:
No person shall be permitted to be a member of both Houses simultaneously.

Article 49:
Members of both Houses shall receive appropriate annual payment from the national
treasury in accordance with law.

Article 50:
Except in cases as provided for by law, members of both Houses shall be exempt from
apprehensionwhile the Diet is in session, and any members apprehended before the opening
of the session shall be freed during the term of the session upon demand of the House.

Article 51:
Members of both Houses shall not be held liable outside the House for speeches,
debates or votes cast inside the House.

Article 52:
An ordinary session of the Diet shall be convoked once per year.

Article 53:
The Cabinet may determine to convoke extraordinary sessions of the Diet. When
a quarter or more of the total members of either House makes the demand, the
Cabinet must determine on such convocation.

Article 54:
When the House of Representatives is dissolved, there must be a general election
of members of the House of Representatives within forty(40) days from the date of
dissolution, and the Diet must be convoked within thirty(30) days from the date of
the election.
2) When the House of Representatives is dissolved, the House of Councillors is
  closed at the same time.
  However, the Cabinet may, in time of national emergency, convoke the House
  of Councillors in emergency session.
3) Measures taken at such session as mentioned in the proviso of the preceding
  paragraph shall be provisional and shall become null and void unless agreed to by
  the House of Representatives within a period of ten(10) days after the opening
  of the next session of the Diet.

Article 55:
Each House shall judge disputes related to qualifications of its members. However,
in order to deny a seat to any member, it is necessary to pass a resolution by a
majority of twothirds or more of the members present.

Article 56:
Business cannot be transacted in either House unless one-third or more of total
membership is present.
2) All matters shall be decided, in each House, by a majority of those present, except
  as elsewhere provided for in the Constitution, and in case of a tie, the presiding
  officer shall decide the issue.

Article 57:
Deliberation in each House shall be public. However, a secret meeting may be held
where a majority
of two-thirds or more of those members present passes a resolution therefor.
2) Each House shall keep a record of proceedings. This record shall be published and
  given general circulation, excepting such parts of proceedings of secret session as
  may be deemed to require secrecy.
3) Upon demand of one-fifth or more of the members present, votes of the members
  on any matter shall be recorded in the minutes.

Article 58:
Each House shall select its own president and other officials.
2) Each House shall establish its rules pertaining to meetings, proceedings and internal
  discipline, and may punish members for disorderly conduct. However, in order to
  expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must
  pass a resolution thereon.

Article 59:
A bill becomes a law on passage by both Houses, except as otherwise provided for
by the Constitution.
2) A bill, which is passed by the House of Representatives, and upon which the House
  of Councillorsmakes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives,
  becomes a law when passed a second time by the House of Representatives by a
  majority of two-thirds or more of the members present.
3) The provision of the preceding paragraph does not preclude the House of Representatives
  from calling for the meeting of a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law.
4) Failure by the House of Councillors to take final action within sixty (60) days after
  receipt of a bill passed by the House of Representatives, time in recess excepted, may
  be determined by the House of Representatives to constitute a rejection of the said
  bill by the House of Councillors.

Article 60:
The budget must first be submitted to the House of Representatives.
2) Upon consideration of the budget, when the House of Councillors makes a decision
  different from that of the House of Representatives, and when no agreement can be
  reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or in
  the case of failure by the House of Councillors to take final action within thirty(30)
  days, the period of recess excluded, after the receipt of the budget passed by the
  House of Representatives, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the
  decision of the Diet.

Article 61:
The second paragraph of the preceding Article applies also the the Diet approval required
for the conclusion of treaties.

Article 62:
Each House may conduct investigations in relation to government, and may demand the
presence and testimony of witnesses, and the production of records.

Article 63:
The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State may, at any time, appear in either House
for the purpose of speaking on bills, regardless of whether they are members of the
House or not.
They must appear when their presence is required in order to give answers or explanations.

Article 64:
The Diet shall set up an impeachment court from among the members of both Houses
for the purposes of trying those judges against whom removal proceedings have
been instituted.
2) Matters relating to impeachment shall be provided for by law.

CHAPTER V: THE CABINET
Article 65:
Executive power shall be vested in the Cabinet.

Article 66:
The Cabinet shall consist of the Prime Minister, who shall be its head, and other
Ministers of State, as provided for by law.
2) The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State must be civilians.
3) The Cabinet shall, in the exercise of executive power, be collectively responsible
  to the Diet.

Article 67:
The Prime Minister shall be designated from among the members of the Diet by a
resolution of the Diet.  This designation shall precede all other business.
2) If the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors disagree and if no
  agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided
  for by law, or the House of Councillors fails to make designation within ten (10) days,
  exclusive of the period of recess, after the House of Representatives has made designation,
  the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet.

Article 68:
The Prime Minister shall appoint the Ministers of State.
However, a majority of their number must be chosen from among the members of the Diet.
2) The Prime Minister may remove the Ministers of State as he chooses.

Article 69:
If the House of Representatives passes a non-confidence resolution, or rejects a
confidence resolution, the Cabinet shall resign en masse, unless the House of
Representatives is dissolved within ten (10) days.

Article 70:
When there is a vacancy in the post of Prime Minister, or upon the first convocation
of the Diet after a general election of members of the House of Representatives,
the Cabinet shall resign en masse.

Article 71:
In the cases mentioned in the two preceding Articles, the Cabinet shall continue its
functions until the time when a new Prime Minister is appointed.

Article 72:
The Prime Minister, representing the Cabinet, submits bills, reports on general national
affairs and foreign relations to the Diet and exercises control and supervision over
various administrative branches.

Article 73:
The Cabinet shall, in addition to other general administrative functions, perform the
following functions:
(1) Administer the law faithfully; conduct affairs of state.
(2) Manage foreign affairs.
(3) Conclude treaties. However, it shall obtain prior or, depending on circumstances
   subsequent approval of the Diet.
(4) Administer the civil service, in accordance with standards established by law.
(5) Prepare the budget, and present it to the cabinet orders in order to execute the
  provisions of this Constitution and of the law.
(6)However, it cannot include penal provisions in such cabinet orders unless authorized
  by such law.
(7) Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve,
  and restoration of rights.

Article 74:
All laws and cabinet orders shall be signed by the competent Minister of State and
countersigned by the Prime Minister.

Article 75:
The Ministers of State shall not, during their tenure of office, be subject to legal
action without the consent of the Prime Minister.
However, the right to take that action is not impaired hereby.

CHAPTER VI: JUDICIARY
Article 76:
The whole judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and in such inferior courts
as are established by law.
2) No extraordinary tribunal shall be established, nor shall any organ or agency of
  the Executive be given final judicial power.
3) All judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be
  bound only by this Constitution and the laws.

Article 77:
The Supreme Court is vested with the rule-making power under which it determines
the rules of procedure and of practice, and of matters relating to attorneys, the internal
discipline of the courts and the administration of judicial affairs.
2) Public procurators shall be subject to the rule-making power of the Supreme Court.
3) The Supreme Court may delegate the power to make rules for inferior courts to
  such courts.

Article 78:
Judges shall not be removed except by public impeachment unless judicially declared
mentally or physically incompetent to perform official duties. No disciplinary action
against judges shall be administered by any executive organ or agency.

Article 79:
The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Judge and such number of judges as may be
determined by law; all such judges excepting the Chief Judge shall be appointed by the Cabinet.
2) The appointment of the judges of the Supreme Court shall be reviewed by the people
  at the first general election of members of the House of Representatives following
  their appointment, and shall be reviewed again at the first general election of members
  of the House of Representatives after a lapse of ten(10) years, and in the same
  manner thereafter.

Article 80:
The judges of the inferior courts shall be appointed by the Cabinet from a list of persons
nominated by the Supreme Court. All such judges shall hold office for a term of ten(10)
years with privilege of reappointment, provided that they shall be retired upon the attainment
of the age as fixed by law.
2) The judges of the inferior courts shall receive, at regular stated intervals, adequate
  compensation which shall not be decreased during their terms of office.

Article 81:
The Supreme Court is the court of last resort with power to determine the constitutionality
of any law, order, regulation or official act.

Article 82:
Trials shall be conducted and judgement declared publicly.
2) Where a court unanimously determines publicity to be dangerous to public order or
  morals, a trial may be conducted privately, but trials of political offenses, offenses involving
  the press or cases wherein the rights of people as guaranteed in CHAPTER III of this
  Constitution are in question shall always be conducted publicly.

CHAPTER VII: FINANCE
Article 83:
The power to administer national finances shall be exercised as the Diet shall determine.
Article 84:
No new taxes shall be imposed or existing ones modified except by law or under such
conditions as law may prescribe.

Article 85:
No money shall be expended, nor shall the State obligate itself, except as authorized by
the Diet.

Article 86:
The Cabinet shall prepare and submit to the Diet for its consideration and decision a
budget for each fiscal year.

Article 87:
In order to provide for unforeseen deficiencies in the budget, a reserve fund may be
authorized by the Diet to be expended upon the responsibility of the Cabinet must get
subsequent approval of the Diet for all payments from the reserve fund.

Article 88:
All property of the Imperial Household shall belong to the State.
All expenses of the Imperial Household shall be appropriated by the Diet in the budget.

Article 89:
No public money or other property shall be expended or appropriated for the use,
benefit or maintenance of any religious institution or association, or for any charitable,
educational or benevolent enterprises not under the control of public authority.

Article 90:
Final accounts of the expenditures and revenues of the State shall be audited annually
by a Board of Audit and submitted by the Diet, together with the statement of audit,
during the fiscal year immediately following the period covered.
2) The organization and competency of the Board of Audit shall be determined by law.

Article 91:
At regular intervals and at least annually the Diet and the people on the state of national
finances.

CHAPTER VIII: LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT
Article 92:
Regulations concerning organization and operations of local public entities shall be
fixed by law in accordance with the principle of local autonomy.

Article 93:
The local public entities shall establish assemblies as their deliberative organs, in
accordance with law.
2) The chief executive officers of all local public entities, the members of their assemblies,
  and such other local officials as may be determined by law shall be elected by direct
  popular vote within their several communities.

Article 94:
Local public entities shall have the right to manage their property, affairs and administration
and to enact their own regulations within law.

Article 95:
A special law, applicable only to one local public entity, cannot be enacted by the Diet
without the consent of the majority of the voters of the local public entity concerned,
obtained in accordance with law.

CHAPTER IX: AMENDMENTS
Article 96:
Amendments to this Constitution shall be initiated by the Diet, through a concurring
vote of twothirds or more of all the members of each House and shall thereupon be
submitted to the people for ratification, which shall require the affirmative vote of a
majority of all votes cast thereon, at a special referendum or at such electionas the
Diet shall specify.
2) Amendments when so ratified shall immediately be promulgated by the Emperor in
  the name of the people, as an integral part of this Constitution.

CHAPTER X: SUPREME LAW
Article 97:
The fundamental human rights by this Constitution guaranteed to the people of Japan
are fruits of the ageold struggle of man to be free; they have survived the many exacting
tests for durability and are conferred upon this and future generations in trust, to be
held for all time inviolate.

Article 98:
This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the nation and no law, ordinance, imperial
rescript or other act of government, or part thereof, contrary to the provisions hereof,
shall have legal force or validity.
2) The treaties concluded by Japan and established laws of nations shall be faithfully
  observed.

Article 99:
The Emperor or the Regent as well as Ministers of State, members of the Diet, judges,
and all other public officials have the obligation to respect and uphold this Constitution.

CHAPTER XI: SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
Article 100:
This Constitution shall be enforced as from the day when the period of six months will
have elapsed counting from the day of its promulgation.
2) The enactment of laws necessary for the enforcement of this Constitution, the
  election of members of the House of Councillors and the procedure for the convocation
  of the Diet and other preparatory procedures necessary for the enforcement of this
  Constitution may be executed before the day prescribed in the preceding paragraph.

Article 101:
If the House of Councillors is not constituted before the effective date of this
Constitution, the House of Representatives shall function as the Diet until such time as
the House of Councillors shall be constituted.

Article 102:
The term of office for half the members of the House of Councillors serving in the first
term under this Constitution shall be three years.
Members falling under this category shall be determined in accordance with law
Article 103:
The Ministers of State, members of the House of Representatives, and judges in office on
the effective date of this Constitution, and all other public officials who occupy positions
corresponding to such positions as are recognized by this Constitution shall not forfeit their
positions automatically on account of the enforcement of this Constitution unless otherwise
specified by law.
When, however, successors are elected or appointed under the provisions of this Constitution,
they shall forfeit their positions as a matter of course.

November 3, Showa 21 proclamation     Enforcement on May 3, Showa 22
 I, based on the consensus of the people of Japan, Japan is the cornerstone of
 the new construction,it has come to a determined, deep joy, the constitutional
 amendment approved by the Imperial Parliamentby Article 73 of the
  Constitution of the Empireand imperial adviser privy inquiry and approval,
 and promulgated it here.
Emperor of Japan. (Signature & Seal)

Constitution of Japan
House of councillors (The national Diet of japan)
Message song for people in the world to tie.


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